Vesting refers to the legal ownership or title of a property. In the context of a 1031 exchange, vesting issues can arise when the taxpayer does not hold legal ownership of the property being exchanged.

To qualify for a 1031 exchange, the taxpayer must be the legal owner of both the relinquished property (property being sold) and the replacement property (property being acquired). If the taxpayer does not hold legal ownership of either property, it can create complications and potentially disqualify the exchange.

Common Vesting Issues


If the relinquished or replacement property is co-owned by multiple individuals or entities, all co-owners must agree to participate in the exchange. Each co-owner’s interest in the property must be properly transferred and accounted for in the exchange.


Trusts and entities:

If the property is held in a trust or owned by an entity such as a partnership or LLC, the taxpayer must ensure that the trust or entity is eligible to participate in a 1031 exchange. The taxpayer may need to transfer the property out of the trust or entity and into their individual name before the exchange.


Contractual rights:

In some cases, the taxpayer may have a contractual right to purchase or sell a property, but legal ownership has not yet transferred. To qualify for a 1031 exchange, the taxpayer must have legal ownership of the property at the time of the exchange. If the taxpayer only has a contractual right, they may need to complete the purchase or sale before proceeding with the exchange.

It is important to consult with a qualified tax professional or attorney to address any vesting issues that may arise in a 1031 exchange. They can provide guidance on how to properly transfer ownership and ensure compliance with the exchange requirements.

Holding Requirements

Conservative advice suggests that the same taxpayer should hold the property transferred and the property acquired for a substantive period of time. It is generally recommended that the taxpayer hold the property before and after the exchange for at least twelve months. However, there have been cases, such as 124 Front Street, Inc. v. Commissioner, where a six-month holding period was deemed sufficient.

Conversion of Personal Property

The determination of whether the property is used for personal use, use in a trade or business, or for investment is based on the actual use of the property at the time of the exchange. In Klarkowski, the court recognized that the nature or character of the property may be different at the time of acquisition than at the time of the exchange. This means that a taxpayer may attempt to convert their residence to an investment or income-producing property prior to an exchange by moving out and renting the property.

The success of this strategy depends on various factors, including the length of the rental, the substance of the transaction, the existence of a pre-arranged exchange, and the taxpayer’s documentation of their rental efforts. The courts have held that making arrangements for tax avoidance purposes alone is not sufficient to disqualify the exchange.

In Land Dynamics, the court found that merely holding the property for several years does not establish an intention to hold it for investment purposes. The challenge in these situations is building and retaining enough circumstantial evidence to prove the change in holding in a subsequent audit. While the taxpayer’s intent at the time of the transaction is important, the courts also consider the taxpayer’s activities and the surrounding facts and circumstances before and after the exchange.

In cases like 124 Front Street, Inc. and Boise Cascade Corporation, the courts considered factors such as pre-existing plans and contracts, purpose at the time of acquisition, tax avoidance motives, and the taxpayer’s state of mind during the holding period. These factors are evaluated on a case-by-case basis.